SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & EVIDENCE
REGARDING STEM CELL EFFICACY
At iOBX™, we believe everything we do starting with in-depth comprehensive evaluation, our candidacy rating system, our customized treatment recommendations, and our advanced stem cell procedures themselves should be grounded in scientific evidence. As such we highlight just some of the current research available on the topic of Bio-Restorative & Stem Cell Orthopedics. There is no longer a scarcity of research and the mounting data is growing quickly.
iOBX™ REGENERATIVE MEDICINE BASED PUBLICATIONS
Zeckser, J, Wolff, M, Tucker, J, Goodwin, J. “Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Discogenic Low Back Pain and Disc Degeneration”. Stem Cells International. Volume 2016 (2016). Article ID 3908389, 13 pages
Jason Tucker, Christopher Centeno, and Jeff Ericksen. “Knee Osteoarthritis with Emphasis on Percutaneous Regenerative Medicine. Chapter 34. Case studies in Pain Management, ed. Alan David Kaye and Rinoo V. Shah. Published by Cambridge University Press. Volume 2015.
J.D Tucker, J.J. Ericksen, L.L.Goetz, L.W. Elmore. “Should clinical studies involving ‘Regenerative Injection Therapy,’ strive to incorporate a triad outcome measures instead of only including clinical outcome measures?” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. June 2014. Volume 22, Issue 6. Pages 715-717.
Lauren Alexis Hoeferlin, Quoc K. Huynh, Jennifer A. Mietla, Scott A. Sell, Jason Tucker, Charles Edward Chalfant, and Dayanjan Shanaka Wijesinghe. “The lipid portion of activated platelet-rich plasma significantly contributes to its healing prosperities. Advances in Wound Care. Volume 4, Number 2. Feb 2015.
OTHER PUBLICATIONS AND STUDIES (GENERAL)
Wyles, C, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis: current perspectives. Stem Cells Cloning. 2015; 8: 117–124.
Caplan, A and D. Correa, “The MSC: an injury drugstore,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 2011.
Friedenstein, A, I. I. Piatetzky-Shapiro, and K. V. Petrakova, “Osteogenesis in transplants of bone marrow cells,” Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 381–390, 1966.
Pittenger, M, A. M. Mackay, S. C. Beck et al., “Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5411, pp. 143–147, 1999.
Petersen, B, ,W. C. Bowen, K. D. Patrene et al., “Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5417, pp. 1168–1170, 1999.
Kopen, G,D. J. Prockop, andD.G. Phinney, “Marrow stromal cells migrate throughout forebrain and cerebellum, and they differentiate into astrocytes after injection into neonatal mouse brains,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 19, pp. 10711–10716, 1999.
Campagnoli, C, I. A. G. Roberts, S. Kumar, P. R. Bennett, I. Bellantuono, and N. M. Fisk, “Identification of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in human first-trimester fetal blood, liver, and bone marrow,” Blood, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 2396–2402, 2001.
Karp, J andG. S. L. Teo, “Mesenchymal stem cell homing: the devil is in the details,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 206–216, 2009.
Uccelli, A, L. Moretta, and V. Pistoia, “Mesenchymal stem cells in health and disease,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 726–736, 2008.
Doorn, J, G. Moll, K. Le Blanc, C. van Blitterswijk, and J. de Boer, “Therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stromal cells: paracrine effects and potential improvements,” Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 101–115, 2012.
Silva Meirelles, L A. M. Fontes, D. T. Covas, and A. I. Caplan, “Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic properties of mesenchymal stem cells,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 419–427, 2009.
Manferdini, C. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exert Antiinflammatory Effects on Chondrocytes and Synoviocytes from Osteoarthritis Patients Through Prostaglandin E2. Arthritis & Rheumatism. Vol. 65, No. 5, May 2013, pp 1271–1281
Schmitt, A, et al. Application of Stem Cells in Orthopedics. Stem Cells Int. 2012; 2012:
Tinsley, B, et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma Non-operative Injection Therapy—A Review of Indications and Evidence. Oper Tech Sports Med : 2012 20:192-200
Nguyen, R, et al. Applications of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Musculoskeletal and Sports Medicine: An Evidence-Based Approach. PM R 2011;3:226-250
Malanga, G. Regenerative Treatments for Orthopedic Conditions. PM R 7 (2015) S1-S3
Pak J, Chang JJ, Lee JH, Lee SH. Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints. National Center for Biotechnology Information. BMC Musculoskeletal Disord. 2013 Dec 1.
Centeno, C, et al. A multi-center analysis of adverse events among two thousand, three hundred and seventy two adult patients undergoing adult autologous stem cell therapy for orthopaedic conditions. International Orthopedics. Mar 2016. p. 1-11.
Hernigou P1, Homma Y2, Flouzat-Lachaniette CH1, Poignard A1, Chevallier N1, Rouard H1. Cancer risk is not increased in patients treated for orthopaedic diseases with autologous bone marrow cell concentrate. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Dec 18;95(24):2215-21.
Agung M, Ochi M, Yanada S, Adachi N, Izuta Y, Yamasaki T, Toda K. “Mobilization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the injured tissues after intraarticular injection and their contribution to tissue regeneration.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. 2006 Dec;14(12):1307-14. Epub 2006 Jun 20.
Cecilia Pascual-Garrido, A. Rolón, and A. Makino. “Treatment of Chronic Patellar Tendinopathy with Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells: A 5-Year-Followup.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. Stem Cells Int. 2012.
Vangsness CT Jr1, Farr J 2nd2, Boyd J3, Dellaero DT4, Mills CR5, LeRoux-Williams M5. Adult human mesenchymal stem cells delivered via intra-articular injection to the knee following partial medial meniscectomy: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Jan 15;96(2):90-8.
Centeno, C, et al. Efficacy of autologous bone marrow concentrate for knee osteoarthritis with and without adipose graft. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:370621.
Centeno, C, J. R. Schultz, M. Cheever, B. Robinson, M. Freeman, andW.Marasco, “Safety and complications reporting on the re-implantation of culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells using autologous platelet lysate technique,” Current Stem Cell Research andTherapy, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–93, 2010.
Buda, R, F. Vannini,M. Cavallo, B. Grigolo, A. Cenacchi, and S. Giannini, “Osteochondral lesions of the knee: a new one-step repair technique with bone-marrow-derived cells,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—Series A, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 2–11, 2010.
Gobbi,A, G. Karnatzikos, C. Scotti, V. Mahajan, L. Mazzucco, and B. Grigolo, “One-step cartilage repair with bone marrow aspirate concentrated cells and collagen matrix in full-thickness knee cartilage lesions: results at 2-year follow-up,” Cartilage, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 286–299, 2011.
Gobbi,A, G. Karnatzikos, and S. R. Sankineani, “One-step surgery with multipotent stem cells for the treatment of large full-thickness chondral defects of the knee,” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 648–657, 2014.
Centeno, C, D. Busse, J. Kisiday, C. Keohan,M. Freeman, and D. Karli, “Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells,” Pain Physician, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 343–353, 2008.
Centeno, C, D. Busse, J. Kisiday, C. Keohan,M. Freeman, and D. Karli, “Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 900–908, 2008.
Davatchi, F, B. S. Abdollahi, M. Mohyeddin, F. Shahram, and B. Nikbin, “Mesenchymal stemcell therapy for knee osteoarthritis. Preliminary report of four patients,” International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 211–215, 2011.
Emadedin, M, N. Aghdami, L. Taghiyar et al., “Intra-articular injection of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in six patients with knee osteoarthritis,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 422–428, 2012.
Orozco,L, A.Munar, R. Soler et al., “Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with autologous mesenchymal stem cells: a pilot study,” Transplantation, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1535–1541, 2013.
Goyal, D, S. Keyhani, E. H. Lee, and J. H. P. Hui, “Evidence based status of microfracture technique: a systematic review of level I and II studies,” Arthroscopy, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1579–1588, 2013.
Saw, K, A. Anz, C. Siew-Yoke Jee et al., “Articular cartilage regeneration with autologous peripheral blood stem cells versus hyaluronic acid: a randomized controlled trial,” Arthroscopy, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 684–694, 2013.
Saw,K, A. Anz, S. Merican et al., “Articular cartilage regeneration with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells and hyaluronic acid after arthroscopic subchondral drilling: a report of 5 cases with histology,” Arthroscopy, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 493– 506, 2011.
Wong,K, K. B. L. Lee, B. C. Tai, P. Law, E. H. Lee, and J. H. P.Hui, “Injectable cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal Stem cells in varus knees with cartilage defects undergoing high tibial osteotomy: a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 years’ follow-up,” Arthroscopy—Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2020–2028, 2013.
Koh,Y, and Y.-J. Choi, “Infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis,” Knee, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 902–907, 2012.
Koh,Y, S.-B. Jo, O.-R. Kwon et al., “Mesenchymal stem cell injections improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis,” Arthroscopy, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 748–755, 2013.
Koh,Y, Y.-J. Choi, S.-K. Kwon, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-E. Yeo, “Clinical results and second-look arthroscopic findings after treatment with adipose-derived stem cells for knee osteoarthritis,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 2013.
Jo,C, Y. G. Lee, W. H. Shin et al., “Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a proof-of-concept clinical trial,” Stem Cells, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1254–1266, 2014.
Vangsness Jr., C, J. Farr, J. Boyd, D. T. Dellaero, C. R. Mills, and M. LeRoux-Williams, “Adult human mesenchymal stem cells delivered via intra-articular injection to the knee following partial medial meniscectomy,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 90–98, 2014.
Varma,H, B.Dadarya, and A. Vidyarthi, “The new avenues in The management of osteoarthritis of knee—stem cells,” Journal of the Indian Medical Association, vol. 108, no. 9, pp. 583–585, 2010.
Hauser,R, and A. Orlofsky, “Regenerative injection therapy with whole bone marrow aspirate for degenerative joint disease: a case series,” Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 6, pp. 65–72,
Koh, Y, S.-B. Jo, O.-R. Kwon et al., “Mesenchymal stem cell injections improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis,” Arthroscopy, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 748–755, 2013.
Koh, Y, Y.-J. Choi, S.-K. Kwon, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-E. Yeo, “Clinical results and second-look arthroscopic findings after treatment with adipose-derived stem cells for knee osteoarthritis,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 2013.
Jo, C, Y. G. Lee, W. H. Shin et al., “Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a proof-of-concept clinical trial,” Stem Cells, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1254–1266, 2014.
Vangsness Jr.,C, J. Farr, J. Boyd, D. T. Dellaero, C. R. Mills, and M. LeRoux-Williams, “Adult human mesenchymal stem cells delivered via intra-articular injection to the knee following partial medial meniscectomy,” The Journal
Vaquerizo V, etal. Comparison of Intra-Articular Injections of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF-Endoret) Versus Durolane Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Patients With Symptomatic Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arthroscopy. 2013 Oct;29(10):1635-43.
Jang SJ, etal. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as an effective treatment for early osteoarthritis. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2013 Jul;23(5):573-80.
Halpern B, etal. Clinical and MRI outcomes after platelet-rich plasma treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Sport Med. 2013 May;23(3):238-9.
Patel S, etal. Treatment with platelet-rich plasma is more effective than placebo for knee osteoarthritis: a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial. Am J Sports Med. 2013 Feb;41(2):356-64.
Filardo, G. Platelet-rich plasma vs hyaluronic acid to treat knee degenerative pathology: study design and preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012 Nov 23;13:229. Say. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Is More Effective than Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2013;80(4):278-283.
SHOULDER PAIN / ROTATOR CUFF
Hernigou P1, Flouzat Lachaniette CH, Delambre J, Zilber S, Duffiet P, Chevallier N, Rouard H. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study. Int Orthop. 2014 Sep;38(9):1811-8.
Gumucio JP, et al. Stromal vascular stem cell treatment decreases muscle fibrosis following chronic rotator cuff tear. Int Orthop. 2016 Apr;40(4):759-64.
Fickischerer, A, et al. Clinical management of rotator cuff tears. Current concepts in cell-based therapy strategies]. Orthopade. 2016 Feb;45(2):143-8
Tomero-Esteban, P, et al. Efficacy of supraspinatus tendon repair using mesenchymal stem cells along with a collagen I scaffold. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015 Aug 14;10:124
Valencia, M, et al. Stem cell therapy in the management of shoulder rotator cuff disorders. World J Stem Cells. 2015 May 26;7(4):691-9.
SPINE / LOWER BACK PAIN
Yetsa A. Tuakli-Wosornu, MD, MPH, Alon Terry, MD, Kwadwo Boachie-Adjei, BS, CPH, Julian R. Harrison, BS, Caitlin K. Gribbin, BA, Elizabeth E. LaSalle, BS, Joseph T. Nguyen, MPH, Jennifer L. Solomon, MD, Gregory E. Lutz, MD. “Lumbar Intradiskal Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study.” American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation .January 2016. Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1–10.
Zeckser, J, Wolff, M, Tucker, J, Goodwin, J. “Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Discogenic Low Back Pain and Disc Degeneration”. Stem Cells International. Volume 2016 (2016). Article ID 3908389, 13 pages
Pettine K, Suzuki R, Sand T, Murphy M. Treatment of discogenic back pain with autologous bone marrow concentrate injection with minimum two-year follow-up. National Center for Biotechnology Information. International orthopaedics.2016 Jan. Epub 2015 Jul 10.
Hussein, etal. Effect of autologous platelet leukocyte rich plasma injections on atrophied lumbar multifidus muscle in low back pain patients with monosegmental degenerative disc disease. SICOT J. 2016 Mar 22;2:12.
David Levi MD, Scott Horn DO, Sara Tyszko PA, Josh Levin MD, Charles Hecht-Leavitt MD, Edward Walko DO. “Intradiscal Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain: Preliminary Results from a Prospective Trial.” Pain Management. Oxford University Press. Volume , Issue , 24 December 2015. (2015)
W. Shohei, Y. Kuroda, F. Ogura, T. Shigemoto, and M. Dezawa, “Regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells: contribution of muse cells, a novel pluripotent stem cell type that resides in mesenchymal cells,” Cells, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1045–1060, 2012.
J. M. Gimble, A. J. Katz, and B. A. Bunnell, “Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine,” Circulation Research, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 1249–1260, 2007.
P. Ghosh, R. Moore, B. Vernon-Roberts et al., “Immunoselected STRO-3+ mesenchymal precursor cells and restoration of the extracellular matrix of degenerate intervertebral discs: laboratory investigation,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 479–488, 2012.
D. Sakai, J. Mochida, T. Iwashina et al., “Regenerative effects of transplanting mesenchymal stem cells embedded in atelocollagen to the degenerated intervertebral disc,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 335–345, 2006.
D. Sakai, J. Mochida, T. Washina et al., “Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted to a rabbit degenerative disc model: potential and limitations for stem cell therapy in disc regeneration,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 2379–2387, 2005.
S. Sobajima, G. Vadala, A. Shimer, J. S. Kim, L. G. Gilbertson, and J. D. Kang, “Feasibility of a stem cell therapy for intervertebral disc degeneration,” Spine Journal, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 888–896, 2008.
A. Hiyama, J. Mochida, T. Washina et al., “Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in a canine disc degeneration model,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 589–600, 2008.
H. B. Henriksson, T. Svanvik, M. Jonsson et al., “Transplantation of human mesenchymal stems cells into intervertebral discs in a xenogeneic porcine model,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 2009.
R. Rajpurohit, M. V. Risbud, P. Ducheyne, E. J. Vresilovic, and I. M. Shapiro, “Phenotypic characteristics of the nucleus pulposus: expression of hypoxia inducing factor-1, glucose transporter-1 and MMP-2,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 308, no. 3, pp. 401–407, 2002.
G. Crevensten, A. J. L. Walsh, D. Ananthakrishnan et al., “Intervertebral disc cell therapy for regeneration: mesenchymal stem cell implantation in rat intervertebral discs,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 430–434, 2004.
B. M. Minogue, S. M. Richardson, L. A. H. Zeef, A. J. Freemont, and J. A. Hoyland, “Characterization of the human nucleus pulposus cell phenotype and evaluation of novel marker gene expression to define adult stem cell differentiation,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 3695–3705, 2010.
C. J. Centeno, “Clinical challenges and opportunities of mesenchymal stem cells in musculoskeletal medicine,” PM&R, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 2014.
A. Condé-Green, R. L. Rodriguez, S. Slezak, D. P. Singh, N. H. Goldberg, and J. Mclenithan, “Comparison between stromal vascular cells’ isolation with enzymatic digestion and mechanical processing of aspirated adipose tissue,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 134, no. 4, p. 54, 2014.
L.-L. Lu, Y.-J. Liu, S.-G. Yang et al., “Isolation and characterization of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells with hematopoiesis-supportive function and other potentials,” Haematologica, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 1017–1026, 2006.
K. Chen, D. Wang, W. T. Du et al., “Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells hUC-MSCs exert immunosuppressive activities through a PGE2-dependent mechanism,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 448–458, 2010.
H. B. Henriksson, M. Thornemo, C. Karlsson et al., “Identification of cell proliferation zones, progenitor cells and a potential stem cell niche in the intervertebral disc region: a study in four species,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 2278–2287, 2009.
H. Brisby, N. Papadimitriou, C. Brantsing, P. Bergh, A. Lindahl, and H. Barreto Henriksson, “The presence of local mesenchymal progenitor cells in human degenerated intervertebral discs and possibilities to influence these in vitro: a descriptive study in humans,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 804–814, 2013.
M. Tanaka, D. Sakai, A. Hiyama et al., “Effect of cryopreservation on canine and human activated nucleus pulposus cells: a feasibility study for cell therapy of the intervertebral disc,” BioResearch Open Access, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 273–282, 2013.
D. Coric, K. Pettine, A. Sumich, and M. O. Boltes, “Prospective study of disc repair with allogeneic chondrocytes,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 85–95, 2013.
H. J. Meisel, V. Siodla, T. Ganey, Y. Minkus, W. C. Hutton, and O. J. Alasevic, “Clinical experience in cell-based therapeutics: disc chondrocyte transplantation: a treatment for degenerated or damaged intervertebral disc,” Biomolecular Engineering, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 5–21, 2007.
T. Miyamoto, T. Muneta, T. Tabuchi et al., “Intradiscal transplantation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells prevents intervertebral disc degeneration through suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-related genes in nucleus pulposus cells in rabbits,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 12, no. 6, article R206, 2010.
S.-H. Yang, C.-C. Wu, T. T.-F. Shih, Y.-H. Sun, and F.-H. Lin, “In vitro study on interaction between human nucleus pulposus cells and mesenchymal stem cells through paracrine stimulation,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 18, pp. 1951–1957, 2008.
S. Strassburg, S. M. Richardson, A. J. Freemont, and J. A. Hoyland, “Co-culture induces mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and modulation of the degenerate human nucleus pulposus cell phenotype,” Regenerative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 701–711, 2010.
S. M. Richardson, R. V. Walker, S. Parker et al., “Intervertebral disc cell-mediated mesenchymal stem cell differentiation,” STEM CELLS, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 707–716, 2006.
Z. Sun, Z.-H. Liu, X.-H. Zhao et al., “Impact of direct cell co-cultures on human adipose-derived stromal cells and nucleus pulposus cells,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1804–1813, 2013.
X. Li, J. P. Lee, G. Balian, and D. G. Anderson, “Modulation of chondrocytic properties of fat-derived mesenchymal cells in co-cultures with nucleus pulposus,” Connective Tissue Research, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 75–82, 2005.
C. Le Visage, S. W. Kim, K. Tateno, A. N. Sieber, J. P. Kostuik, and K. W. Leong, “Interaction of human mesenchymal stem cells with disc cells: changes in extracellular matrix biosynthesis,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 2036–2042, 2006.
A. W. H. Gebraad, S. Miettinen, D. W. Grijpma, and S. P. Haimi, “Human adipose stem cells in chondrogenic differentiation medium without growth factors differentiate towards annulus fibrosus phenotype in vitro,” Macromolecular Symposia, vol. 334, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2013.
K. Wuertz, K. Godburn, C. Neidlinger-Wilke, J. Urban, and J. C. Iatridis, “Behavior of mesenchymal stem cells in the chemical microenvironment of the intervertebral disc,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1843–1849, 2008. D. Sakai, J. Mochida, T. Iwashina et al., “Regenerative effects of transplanting mesenchymal stem cells embedded in atelocollagen to the degenerated intervertebral disc,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 335–345, 2006.